(Registration No. 552 of 1974)


The Society shall be called the Telangana Academy of Sciences.


The objects of the Academy are:

  • The Advancement of Science in Telangana.
  • To provide a forum for reading and discussing scientific papers.
  • Propagation of scientific knowledge among people by organizing lectures, seminars, symposia, tours and excursions, popular exhibitions, and distribution of books of popular sciences.
  • Establishment of a Science Museum.
  • Establishment of a Library with a reading room to serve as a central library for all scientific workers.
  • Publication of books and journals on science.
  • To secure and manage funds and endowments for the promotion of science.
  • To assist voluntary science organizations.
  • To do and perform all other acts, matters and things that may assist in, conduce to, or be necessary for the fulfillment of the above mentioned aims and objects of the Academy.


The Academy shall consist of five categories of members:

  • The total Foundation and Fellows of the Academy shall be 1000. To start with, the Membership, be limited to 100 and thereafter, not more than 30 members including five Foreign Fellows, i.e. 25 Fellows and 5 Foreign Fellows will be elected every year.
  • Fellows will be designated as Fellows. The Fellows have a right to vote in the General Body Meeting on the issues raised and also to elect the Council of the Academy.
  • A Fellow of the Academy may nominate persons of Academics/R&D/Industry, whom they wish to be considered by the Council for election as Foreign Fellows and who are recognized similarly in their own country and / or have been associated with India and to the State of Telangana in significant way.
  • The Fellows, elected under this NRI Category, will be designated as Foreign Fellows.
  • Fellows and Foreign Fellows of the Academy shall be entitled to the exclusive use after his / her name of the abbreviated designation FTAS.
  • Associate Members: An Associate Member shall have a post-graduate degree in S&T. Application for the Associate membership shall be supported by three Fellows and approved by the Council. Such members shall have the right to use the library, reading room, to attend the lectures, symposia, seminars and attend the meetings where papers are read. But they have no vote and they cannot take any part in the administration of the Academy nor can they take part in the business meetings of the Academy.
  • Companion Members: Those who are actively interested in the objects of the Academy may be accepted by the Academy on application, supported by two Fellows and approved by the Council. They shall pay Rs. 100/- as an admission fee and Rs. 100/- as an annual subscription. They shall have all the rights and privileges of Associate Members. Science Teachers from different educational institutions may be admitted on application under this category.
  • Institutional Membership: Those S&T Institutions / Industries and their R&D Units / Universities and Overseas Universities and Institutions of S&T may be accepted by the Academy to enroll them as Institutional Members and they shall have the following privileges:- (a) To participate in the Academy activities like Seminars / Symposia / Popular Lectures / Panel discussions / Exhibitions; (b) To encourage Research Fellowships / Travel Fellowships; (c) To exchange Scientific Cooperation through publication of papers in the Journal/s ; (d) To participate in Annual Convention ; (e) To nominate Scientific Staff for the Annual Awards; (f) To participate in all the activities for the Advancement of Science and propagation of scientific knowledge among people by organizing different activities; (g) To utilize this Forum for reading and discussing scientific papers.
  • The annual Institutional Membership (subscription) for each institution / Library/ University shall be Rs. 10,000/- Rupees Ten Thousand Only).

Council of the Academy:

  • The Administration, direction and management of the affairs of the Academy shall be entrusted to the Council composed of the officers of the Academy-namely a President, two Vice-Presidents, Hon. Secretary, a Treasurer, an Editor of Publications, together with 9 other Fellows. Secretary or joint Secretary to Government in the Education Department shall be an Ex-officio Member in the Council of the Academy. The Council shall elect one of the Members to be the Treasurer who shall discharge the duties of the Treasurer as mentioned under Rule-45 of the Constitution. The Treasurer shall be elected along with the other members of the Council for a period of 3 (three) years
  • There will be an Honorary Secretary for the Council who will be elected in accordance with the rules.
  • The past president who has recently held the office of President shall be and Ex-officio Member of the Council for a period of one year.

Election and Admission of Members:

The election of Fellows shall be governed by regulations framed by the Council. Any deviation from the procedure laid down below can be made applicable only after reference to the whole body of Fellows.

  • In the first year of the Academy, the number of Fellows shall be limited to 100. The Government shall nominate the first Fellows of the Academy.
  • The Annual intake of Fellows shall be limited to 30, (including the annual intake of 5 Foreign Fellows) till such time as the total number of Fellows comes to 1000.
  • Each candidate shall be supported from personal knowledge by at least five Fellows.
  • The selection from the total list of candidates recommended to the Academy for election shall be made by the Council but the final election shall be made by the Fellows of Academy by postal ballot.
  • Provision shall be made in regulation for election of persons, who, in the opinion of the Council of the Academy, have rendered conspicuous service to the cause of Science or Technology within the annual intake of 30 persons as per Rule 6(b).
  • Criteria for Election to the Fellowship:

    Indian Fellow:

  • Every Person for election, as a Fellow, shall satisfy the Council that he/she fulfills the following criteria.
  • A Fellow is a person in Academics, R &D, industry and Government, who is a native of Telangana and working by profession anywhere in India, or an Indian citizen working in Telangana by profession at the time of election and who has made outstanding contributions in S&T and continues to be actively engaged in his field. The criterion for election to the fellowship may be one or more of the following: (a) exceptional contributions in S&T; (b) rise to position of high responsibility after having demonstrated distinctive eminence by virtue of his personal achievements of merit; (c) national / international honors and awards and (d) one or more areas relating S & T and effectiveness leadership of an organization.

Foreign Fellows:

A person for election, as a Foreign Fellow, shall satisfy the council that he / she is engaged in profession of S&T in a position of high responsibility and has attained eminence by virtue of his / her outstanding contribution in the field. He / she will be a citizen of a country other than India and not normally resident in India. Additional achievements which may merit election as a foreign Fellow are: (a) Membership of a professional body and status in his / her country i.e., similar to that of a Fellow of TAS; (b) contribution to the growth and development of Science & Technology. The nominations should be sent in writing in the prescribed form with a brief bio-data and the achievements of the persons proposed so as to reach to the office of the Telangana Academy of Sciences annually.

  • The Secretary shall send a written announcement of the election of the candidates who have been duly elected and shall therewith send a copy of the obligation to be signed and of the Rules and Regulations for the time being in force.
  • The admission fee for each full member shall be Rs. 500/- and Membership fee shall be Rs. 500/- per annum.
  • If this fee be not paid within 2 months after issue by such person, of the intimation of the election as full member, such election shall become inoperative; provided that the Council shall have the power to reinstate him with full privileges after his admission and the first annual subscription have been paid within a period not exceeding 12 months from the date of his/her election. In the case of Fellows elected under provisions of Rule 6(e), the Council may at their discretion not require payment of admission fee.
  • No Person, although duly elected according to the Rules and Regulations of the Academy shall be entitled to exercise the rights and privileges of membership; nor shall his/her name be entered in the list of Fellows until he/she has paid his admission fee and his first annual subscription and until he has signed and returned the obligation.
  • The payment of such admission fee and first annual subscription and the signature of the obligation, shall be the commencement of effective membership and shall be equivalent to the expression of a direct acquiescence in all Rules and Regulations of the Academy then in existence, and of an undertaking to be bound by them and by such as may thereafter be passed, as herein after provided.
  • Rules 8 to 10 shall be written or printed on the letter of announcement of election sent to members by the Secretary under Rule 7.

Obligation of the Subscriber:

  • Every person elected to Fellowship of the Academy shall, before his admission subscribe the obligation in the following words:
  • I, the undersigned, do hereby engage that I will endeavour to promote the interest and welfare of the Telangana Academy of Sciences and observe its Rules and Regulations so long as continue to be a full Member thereof.

Privileges of Fellows:

The Fellows shall be entitled to the following rights and privileges:

  • To be present at all General Meetings.
  • To propose and recommend under Rule 6(c), candidates for Fellowship and other categories of membership.
  • To introduce visitors at the general meetings of the Academy with the permission of the Chairman.
  • To have personal access to the library of the Academy.
  • To borrow books, plates, drawings, manuscripts, etc., from the library, subject to such Regulations as may be made by the Council.
  • To receive gratis, copies of the proceedings and transactions of the Academy issued during the continuance of their membership and as such other publications as the Council may decide from time to time, and subject to the discretion of the Council to purchase at a reduced price any of the Academys Publications.
  • To fill any office in the Academy on being duly elected thereto, subject, however, to the proviso that any member appointed to any office in the Academy to which a salary or emolument is attached shall lose, for the time being, the privilege of voting.
  • To communicate papers to be read before the meeting of the Academy.

Subscription of Members:

  • The subscription of a full member shall be Rs. 500/- per year.
  • The subscriptions shall be payable on the first day of each calendar year.
  • No full member whose subscription is in arrears for six months shall be permitted to enjoy the rights or exercise the privileges of a full member until he shall have a paid up all the arrears due from him.
  • Any full member of the Academy may, after he shall have paid his admission fee, compound for the payment of all future subscriptions, by the payment in a single sum or by installments within one calendar year of Rs. 5,000/-.
  • Subscription to Foreign Fellows: The admission fee for each member shall be US $50 and the annual membership shall be US $50. The life Membership fee for Foreign Fellows shall be US $ 500.
  • Subscription to Institution Members: The annual subscription for the institutional Members shall be Rs. 10,000/- and the Life Membership (one time) subscription for Institutional Members shall be Rs. 50,000/- covering different R&D Units of Corporations/ Universities / Scientific Laboratories. The annual Institutional Membership subscription for overseas shall be US $ 250/- and the Life Membership (Onetime payment) subscription shall be US $ 2500/- for overseas Universities and S&T Institutions.

Subscription of Associate Members:

  • An admission fee of Rs. 200/- shall be due from Associate Member, on election.
  • The subscription of Associate Member shall be Rs. 200/- per year.
  • The subscription shall be due on the first day of each calendar year.
  • The full subscription of the year for which a person is admitted to Associate Membership shall be due from him on election unless such election has taken place after the 30th of June, in which case only Rs. 100/- shall be due in respect of that year.
  • No Associate Member whose subscription is in arrears for six months shall be permitted to enjoy the privileges of such Membership until he shall have paid up all the arrears due from him.

Subscription of Companion Members:

  • The subscription of a Companion Member (Graduate Member) shall be Rs. 50/- per year.
  • The subscription shall be due on the first day of each calendar year.
  • The full subscription of the year in which a person is accepted as Companion Member (Graduate Member) shall be due from him, unless such acceptance has taken place after the 30th June in which case only Rs. 25/- shall be due in respect of that year.
  • No Companion member whose subscription is in arrears for six months shall be permitted to enjoy the privileges of such membership.

Cessation of Membership:

  • Any full member of Associate Member or Graduate member may withdraw by signifying his wish to do so by addressing a letter to the Secretary.
  • A letter of withdrawal may be cancelled by the Council at the request of the member, if such an application is made within six months and on payment of all sums for which the member would have been liable, had his membership not been interrupted. He shall thereupon recover all rights of his membership without the form of re-election or acceptance as the case may be. In the case of a full member or an associate member, the Council shall have power to waive, in special cases the time limit of six months specified above.
  • Any member, who shall cease to be a member of the Academy either by voluntary withdrawal or by forfeiture of his membership under Rule 30 and 33 shall continue liable to the payment of the Annual subscription until he shall have discharged all sums (if any) due by him to the Academy and shall have returned all books or other property (if any) borrowed by him from the Academy, or shall have made full compensation for the same, if lost, injured, or not forthcoming.
  • Fellows who have withdrawn from the Academy shall be eligible for re-election, and if re-elected, only half of the usual admission fee shall be due from them.
  • When any member shall have omitted to pay the subscription for one year, the Council shall cause a registered letter to be sent to him/her or directed to his/her last known address informing him/her of the amount of the sums due by him/her and that unless they are paid within six months from the receipt of such letter, his/her name will be struck off the list of members as provided in the next rule.
  • If he omits to pay the amount within the time so limited, his/her name shall be suspended as defaulter at any General Meeting, and unless the amount be paid in the mean time, shall remain so suspended at the Academys office, till the next Annual Meeting when the President shall declare such member to be removed from the Academy for non-payment. This fact shall be notified in the Annual Report of the Academy.
  • If any member shall willfully disobey Rules and order of the Council of the Academy, or shall commit willful breach of order at any of the General Meetings, or having unwillingly committed, shall persist any disobedience or breach of order after being admonished by the President or if, for any other reasons it shall appear to the Council that the name of a member should not remain on the rolls, he/she shall be liable to be removed from the Academy, whenever there shall appear cause, as aforesaid for the removal of a member from the Academy. If a majority of the Council shall have after due deliberation, determine by ballot, to propose to the Academy for the removal of the said member, the President shall at the Annual Meeting of the Academy, announce from the chair such determination of the Council and at that meeting the proposition shall be submitted to ballot. If three-fourths of the members present at such General Meeting vote for the removal of such member, he/she shall be removed from the Academy.
  • Members removed under the operation of the Rule 33 shall not be eligible for re-election until the expiration of one year from the date of such removal.

The Council and the Officers:

  • The election of Officers and other members of the Council shall take place at the Annual General Meeting of the Academy, once in three years.
  • The Council shall prepare, in accordance with the following procedure a list of the names of the persons whom they recommend for election as President, Vice-Presidents, Hon.Secretary, Hon. Treasurer and Editor of Publications.
  • The Council shall determine, at the meeting to be held in August the vacancies that will occur amongst the Officers and other members of the Council.
  • The list of the Council of the current and two preceding years indicating the vacancies that will be occurring in the ensuing year shall be circulated in August to all Fellows in good standing (whose subscriptions are not in arrears for more than six months), inviting nominations regarding the filling of vacancies to reach the office by the date to be specified by the Council. The consent of the member shall be obtained in writing and sent along with the nomination.
  • The nominations received shall be circulated to the members of the Council by a date prescribed by the Council for expression of their views and considered at the meeting of the Council to be held in October and a panel recommended by the Council out of the names suggested.
  • The list of nominations received from the members together with the panel recommended by Council shall be printed and a copy of the same is given to each Fellows of the Academy at the Annual General Meeting of the Academy to be held in December. These voting lists shall have a blank column for such alterations as any full member may wish to make. The voting shall be by secret ballot.
  • The scrutinizers shall be appointed by the President in consultation with the Council.
  • These scrutinizers shall count the voting papers at the next council meeting in January and shall report to the President the names of those having a majority of votes for election as office bearers and other members of the council of the Academy and these names shall be intimated to the members.
  • If any voting paper contains more than the proper number of names or includes the name of candidate who is not eligible, it shall be void for uncertainty and shall not be regarded by the scrutinizers.
  • If there be an equal number of votes for any two or more candidates, the scrutinizers shall announce the fact and the President shall proceed to decide by lots which candidate shall have the preference.
  • A person shall hold the office of the President or Vice-President for a period of three years and is eligible for re-election for a further period of three years.
  • The Secretary and the Editor or Publications shall hold office in the first instance for a period of three years. The Secretary and Editor of Publications are eligible for re-election of the same office.
  • The elected members of the Council shall ordinarily hold office for six years, provided however that at the end of three years, half the numbers shall retire. The names of retiring members for the first time shall be determined by lots. No retiring members shall be eligible for re-election immediately. Interim vacancies shall be filled by the Council for the unexpired period.
  • In the event of a vacancy occurring during the year in the office of President, Vice President and Secretary of the Council, it shall be competent to the remaining members of the Council to fill up such vacancy from among them-selves. The Council may for specified reasons co-opt additional members, as occasion may require within the sanctioned maximum number.
  • `The Council as constituted in accordance with these Rules shall continue to be in office not withstanding that their period of office may have, in fact, expired, until their successors have been duly appointed.
  • In the absence of President from whatever cause, his duties will devolve on the Vice-President.
  • In the absence from Headquarters of the Secretary, the President shall designates one of the members of the Council to continue the function of Secretary until his return to the Head quarters, subject to the confirmation of the Council at the first opportunity. Such member of the Council shall be entitled to sign papers for Secretary.

The Power and the Duties of the Council:

The powers and duties of the Council shall be as follows:

  • To manage the affairs of the Academy, and for such purpose to make such regulations as may to them appear conducive to the good administration of the Academy and the attainment of the aims and objectives of its foundation, provided always that such regulations be not inconsistent with anything contained in these Rules and that they be subject to rescission or alteration by the General Body.
  • To consider all communications to the Academy and in the case of those to be submitted to General Meeting, to determine the order and manner of such submission.
  • To superintend and direct the publication of the periodical or other work published by the Academy.
  • To appoint staff in accordance with the sanctioned budget as and when necessary; to define their duties, allowances, salaries, gratuities and privileges; and to suspend or dismiss them or dispense with their services, as occasion may require.
  • To sanction in special cases additional posts and grants outside the sanctioned budget subject to confirmation by the next subsequent general meeting.
  • To exchange for other property or otherwise dispose of such a manner as may, in their opinion, best conduce to advance the objects and interests of the Academy, any duplicate books, maps, specimens etc., belonging to the Academy.
  • To prepare and submit to the General Meeting, a Report on the general concerns of the Academy. Such report shall set forth an audited statement of Accounts including the income and expenditure for the year ending 31st March, the balance in hand, the debit and assets, the estimated income and expenditure of the succeeding year, the prosperity or otherwise of the Academy and the progress of the Library. The Report shall also include an Abstract of the Proceedings of the Council during the year.
  • The Council shall be empowered, subject to the sanction of the General Meeting, to take legal proceedings for the recovery of any sums due by the members, who after receiving due notice of their liabilities, shall refuse or fail to discharge them.

Powers and Duties of the President:

The powers and duties of the President shall be as follows:

  • To preside over all the meetings of the Academy and of the Council and to regulate the proceedings at such meetings.
  • To ensure due effect being given to these Rules, and to the Regulations, made by the Council.
  • To preside over all meetings of Committees appointed by the Council if he so desires.
  • In the case of doubt as to the interpretation of any of these Rules, the Presidents interpretations shall be final.

Duties of the Secretary:

The duties of the Secretary shall be as follows:

  • To conduct the correspondence of the Academy and of the Council, and to sign all letters and papers emanating from the Academy except in so far as other provision is made in these Rules.
  • To attend the meetings of the Academy and of the Council. To take minutes of the proceedings of such meeting during the progress, and at the commencement of every such meeting, to read the minutes of the previous meeting.
  • At the General Meetings, to announce the presents made to the Academy since their last meeting, to read the names of candidates for membership, the original papers communicated and the letters addressed to the Academy.
  • To prepare for submission to the Annual General Meeting a list of members corrected to the close of the previous year.
  • To enter or cause to be entered in the minutebooks all the Proceedings of the Academy and of the Council before the following meeting and to see that all letters and papers and documents of every kind connected with the business of the Academy are properly filled and preserved.
  • To exercise general supervision over the ministerial staff and servants and affairs of the Academy and to assist in carrying out these Rules and the Regulations and orders made by the Council.
  • To be Ex-Officio Member Convener of all Committees appointed by the Council unless any other member is appointed as convener for such a Committee.

Duties of the Treasurer:

The duties of the Treasurer shall be as follows:

  • He shall receive and hold for the use of the Academy all moneys paid to the Academy.
  • To disburse sums due from the Academy and keep exact accounts for all such receipts and payments.
  • Disbursements exceeding Rs. 200/- shall be made only by the order of the Council or of a committee of the Council.
  • To prepare a list of names of those members who may be in arrears of their subscription for six months or more and to submit it for the orders of Council at the next Council meeting.

Duties of the Editor of Publications:

The duties of the Editor of Publications shall be as follows:

  • To edit the publications, books and journals of the Academy
  • To be responsible for the preparation and printing of publications of the Academy.
  • To have the right of direct correspondence with the authors and with the press.

Meeting of the Academy:

General Meetings of the Academy shall be of three kinds, viz.:

  • Ordinary
  • Annual
  • Extraordinary

The following Rules shall be applicable to all General Meetings of the Academy.

  • One fourth of total number of Fellows shall constitute a quorum for all General Meetings.
  • The president or in his absence the Vice-President or in his absence, a member of the Council elected by the members present shall take the chair.
  • The business of each meeting shall be proceeded within the order hereinafter prescribed in Rules 50 and 51 provided always, that, on written notice being given by a member to the President or the Secretary not less than 48 hours before the hour of meeting, a motion for the immediate transaction of urgent business may be made; and if such motion be seconded and carried, this Rule shall be suspended.
  • With the exception mentioned in the last rule, clause (c) any other items to be proposed by a member require a written notice of one week before the meeting at which the subject is to be disposed.
  • All motions and amendments, except those emanating from the Council, shall require to be seconded, otherwise they cannot be put. Amendments must be in writing, unless excused by the Chairman. Not more than a single amendment to the original motion shall be laid before the meeting at one time. When any such amendment has been negated or has been allowed to take place of the original motion, other amendments involving fresh point may be proposed.
  • The usual method of voting shall be by show of hands, provided always that the votes on any particular subject may be taken by ballot, on a motion to that effect duly carried; and in the cases especially provided for by these Rules and votes shall be so taken.
  • The Chairmans decision on the show of hands shall be final, unless a division be called for. It should be competent to any full member present to call for a division.
  • The Chairman shall not vote with the rest of the meeting, except in the case of election of members of the Council, but when the votes for and against are equal, he shall have a casting vote.
  • Any full member shall have the right of recording dissent together with the reasons for the same against a decision of the majority upon any question at a meeting.
  • The General meeting shall be held at least once a year and in such place as the council may decide.

Order of business of meetings:

The order of business at such meeting shall be as follows:

  • The minutes of the last meeting shall be read and confirmed after correction, if necessary, and signed by the Chairman.
  • Fellows present who have not signed the Enrolment Register shall do so and shall in addition be presented to the Chairman.
  • The presents made to the Academy since the last meeting shall be announced and exhibited.
  • Such business as is necessary in connection with the election of members according to the Regulations framed by the Council shall be transacted.
  • Notice of intended motions shall be given.
  • Deferred items of the previous meeting and such items for which due notice was given shall be disposed of save as provided in clause (g) of the rule and in clause (c) of Rule 48.
  • Matters of current business and routine shall be disposed of. If any question arises as to whether any particular question in one of current business and routine it shall be decided by the Chairman.
  • Reports and communications from the Council shall be submitted for consideration.
  • Papers and communications received by the Academy shall be read in the order prescribed by the Council.
  • The Chairman shall announce the names of new Fellows, if any, elected at the meeting and invite those present to complete formalities of Rule 12.
  • The Chairman shall have the power, when he considers that the meeting has been unduly prolonged to order any uncompleted business, except that provided for in (j) to stand over to the next meeting.

Annual General Meeting:

The Annual General Meeting of the Academy shall be held under the following rules and for the transactions of the following business:

  • The meeting shall be held at such places and on such dates as Council may decide. If the quorum be not present the meeting shall stand adjourned until a date to be decided by the Chairman not more than two weeks later.
  • Notice of the hour and date at which the meeting is to be held, and the place of the meeting, and of the business to be transacted thereat, shall be given to members not less than two weeks before the date of the meeting.
  • The business to be transacted at the meeting shall be:
  • To elect the Office-Bearers and members of the Council at the business session at which only the Fellows will be present and to induct the new Office-Bearers and members of the Council.
  • To consider the Annual Report prepared by the Council and Audited Accounts of the Academy.
  • To transact other business of which notice has been given as provided for in clause (b).

Extra-Ordinary General Meeting:

The following rules shall be applicable to the extraordinary general meeting:-

  • Such meeting may be convened by the President at the request of six members of the Council or by a requisition signed by not less than 20 Fellows stating the special business for which Extra-ordinary General Meeting should be convened.
  • Notice of the day and hour of the meeting and of the special business to be transacted thereat, shall be given to the members not less than one week before the date of the meeting.
  • No business other than that included in the notice shall be transacted at such a meeting.

Funds and Accounts of the Academy:

  • The account and vouchers of the receipts and expenditure of the Academy shall be subject to the examination of the Council at such intervals as the Council may prescribe, and shall be subject to the annual audit. Separate account shall be kept of all funds administered by the Academy on behalf of Government. The Annual Statement of Account, shall after professional audit, be incorporated in the Report of the Academy.
  • All sums received from Fellows as Compounding Fees shall be regularly invested by the Treasurer as soon as possible after the receipts thereof and only the interest accruing there from shall be considered available for the general expenditure of the Academy.
  • All securities and moneys, the property of the Academy shall be lodged for safe custody in the State Bank of Hyderabad.
  • All Cheques drawn on the bank shall be signed jointly by the Hon. Secretary and the Treasurer.


  • These Rules will in first instance be approved by the Government and thereafter any changes in these should be made with the prior approval of Government.
  • No amendment or alteration shall be made in these rules of the Academy unless it is voted by 2/3 of members present at a meeting convened for the purpose and confirmed by 2/3 of the members present at second special meeting and approved by the Government.
  • The State Government shall appoint auditors to audit the accounts annually.